所有文章均来自 《GRE写作高频题目及考点解析》——陈琦



Understandable or Opaque Artwork? - 55


In order for any work of art-for example, a film, a novel, a poem, or a song-to have merit,
it must be understandable to most people.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement
and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position,
you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold ture and
explain how these considerations shape your position.

Puzzled by perplexing paintings, we are nevertheless enamored by a painter's impressive strokes. 尽管曾经为一些费解的画作感到困惑,但我们仍会爱上画家独到的笔触。尽管曾经为一些费解的画作感到困惑,但我们仍会爱上画家独到的笔触。
And while the meaning of a poem may elude us, its emotional expression does not pale. 尽管诗歌的意义有时让我们难以理解,但它的情绪影响力并不会因此而失色。
Such ambiguity in comprehensibility and complexity of art constantly occurs in various art works. 这种艺术创作中“理解的模糊性”与“内涵的复杂性”在许多作品中都有呈现。
While the author declares art's intelligibility to be paramount, I appreciate obscure art work as well. 尽管作者称艺术创作中的“浅显易懂”最为重要,但与此同时,我也不得不强调“模糊朦胧”的艺术价值
The seeming obscureness actually mirrors the artists' dignity as well as the affluence of both the expression and representation of the artists' mental worlds. 事实上,这种表面上的“模糊性”恰好能够体现作品的脱俗品质以及作者对自我精神世界的丰富表达。
All of these characteristics contribute to the irreplaceable merits of art. 所有这些品质构成了艺术作品的不可被取代的优点。

I have to admit, on the one hand, that lucidity abounds in a great amount of popular artwork, from a Hollywood action movie to a catchy street song. 然而,从另一个角度来看,我必须承认“浅显易懂”这个优点存在于大量的流行作品中——从好莱坞的动作电影到朗朗上口的街头歌谣。
Thanks to the work's clarity in terms of content and expression, people come to know it, accept it and finally, are inclined to spread it. 由于作品在内容的和表达方面上存在的“浅显易懂”的优势,人们很快就能够理解、接受并且乐意将其推广开来。
This characteristic of being understandable enables artwork, which used to be exclusive to the noble and upper class, to flourish in public and thereby attain fresh significance in modern society. 这种便于理解的优势将那些曾经被贵族和上流社会所专享的艺术作品带入公众视野,它们在经历繁荣发展的同时并开始在现代社会中取得显著地位。

Artists, however, do not always have to pander to the market, sometimes even at the cost of sacrificing art's integrity and uniqueness. 不过,艺术家们一直不太可能去迎合市场的口味,更不可能为此去牺牲作品的艺术追求与独特性。
Neither is it possible that every single individual would have an equal aesthetic appreciation of the works created by a great master with peerless skills and special personal experience. 同样不可能的还有,面对这些承载着超凡技艺和独特个人经历的伟大作品,不同的受众能具有相同的审美品位。

While I cannot turn a blind eye to copious popular movies, songs and TV shows which emphasis the market over grace and elusiveness, I am hesitant to hastily generalize all kinds of art in the same way. 尽管我无法回避这样一个事实:那些信奉“市场重于高雅和模糊性”的流行电影、歌曲和电视剧正在不断获得更多的关注,但我们很难认同这种视图“将所有艺术归为一类”的做法。
Pandering to the public may gain handsome profits for a while, but the resulting artwork will soon lose its value due to the absence of enduring attraction. 过度迎合市场需求在短时间内固然可以带来可观的收益,但放弃对创作风格的坚守将导致作者失去其一贯的吸引力,进而导致作品中的核心价值的丧失。
For supporting examples, let us turn to popular artwork: an album with a flamboyant cover, or a film lavishly decorated with advanced visual technology. 拿流行艺术品举例:一张有着花哨外观的唱片,或者一部充斥着先进视觉技术的华丽电影。
Have they gained enviable popularity in the public? Possibly. 它们可以获得可观的流行度吗?有可能。
Has their adulatory catering to the public taste earned them abiding merits? Hardly. 但是,它们对市场的需求的一味迎合就能够帮助他们取得持续的优势吗?不太可能。
The very fact that these music and film companies must conjure up various new productions one after another ironically reveals the producers' awareness of the evanescent value of their works and their trepidation of losing the market due to such fleeting value. 讽刺的是,这些唱片公司和电影公司必须不断推出新产品的行为恰好反映了他们深知这些作品价值匮乏,以及对因此而被市场淘汰的担忧。

More importantly, the possession of merit does not necessarily require artwork to be intelligible. 更为重要的是,想要获得艺术价值,并不意味着必须使作品简单易懂。
In fact, art's merit is primarily embodied in the artist's skill mastery, as well as by the representation of his or her inner world. 事实上,作品的价值主要体现在艺术家的高超技艺以及其内心世界的生动呈现。
Such skills frequently remain exclusive to the artist due to its opaqueness; likewise, the artist's unique personal experience also alienates him or her from those who do not share similar stories. 而由于其专业性,这些技巧很难被普通大众所理解;同样,作者特有的人生经历也疏远了那些缺乏类似经历的受众。
The artwork, therefore, is not always understandable to most people, but under no circumstance does this complexity hinder the artwork from achieving its intrinsic worth. 因此,艺术作品并不总能被大部分人所理解;但可以确定的是,这种复杂性并不会阻碍作品实现其内在价值。
Picasso's Guerica, one of many possible examples, sufficiently supports my claim. 比如,毕加索的《格尔尼卡》就可以很好地佐证我的观点。
Prestigious for its adept expression of cubism and surrealism, as well as its vivid portrayal of the painter's mental agony and fury about violence, Guerica has achieved worldwide fame. 由于对立体主义与超现实主义的娴熟运用,以及作者生动地呈现了面对暴利时的痛苦与愤怒,《格尔尼卡》在世界范围内赢得了广泛美誉。
However, the abstruseness of this work's expression precludes common appreciation; similarly, people with no experience under the devil's trample fail to sympathize with the painter. 但是,作品的复杂却让大众难以理解;未能亲历邪恶势力折磨的观众也难以切身体会作者的创作背景。
Nevertheless, few dispute Guerica's arcane expression and theme, but applaud it as a highly meritorious masterpiece 然而,《格尔尼卡》并未因其“模糊朦脓”的表达方式与主题而受到诟病;相反,人们丢次纷纷给予了极高的赞许。

To summarize, while we may fell a sense of closeness with the artist when previously elusive artwork becomes accessible, such a switch in most scenarios takes place at the expense of art's integrity.
To gain a better understanding of art, we should better foster our aesthetic appreciation, rather than juvenilely demanding the convergence of elegance and mediocrity.

People’s Behavior - Forces or Own Making? - 11

Free will

People’s behavior is largely determined by forces not of their own making.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement
and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position,
you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold ture and
explain how these considerations shape your position.

Human behaviors are interesting in that they can either be spontaneous or driven by external forces. 人类的行为是很有趣的,因为他们的行为可能是是自发的、可能是由外力驱动的。
Opinions vary greatly regarding the importance of these factories. 人们对这些因素的重要性持有不同的看法。
The statement suggests that our behaviors are largely determined by external forces rather than our own qulities. 题干认为我们的行为很大程度上是由外力而不是我们自身的素质所决定的。
While it may be true that external forces can greatly shape our behavior, from my perspective, our own making also plays a role that cannot be overlooked. 虽然外力可以大大塑造我们的行为的观点可能是正确的,但在我看来,我们自身的内在作用也发挥着不可忽视的作用。
What is more, since external and internal forces have distinct natures and mechanisms to affect human behaviors, any attempt to claim one is more influential than the other is overly simplistic. 更为重要的是,因为外部和内部力量的本质以及它们影响人类行为的机制截然不同,任何试图宣称一种力量比另一种力量更有影响力的人都过度简化了问题。

External forces can play a critical role in regulating human behavior, because human beings are social animals and respond to external stimuli. 外部力量在控制人类行为中可能发挥了关键作用,因为人类是社会性动物,会对外部刺激作出反应。
Therefore, social norms determine to a large extent what can be or cannot be done. 因此,社会规范很大程度上决定了什么能做,什么不能做。
The reason why humans are a social species can be traced back to ancient times, when individuals were vulnerable to nature's elements. 人类是一种社会性物种的原因可以追溯到古代,那时个人很容易受到自然因素的影响。
When they acted collectively, however, humans became much stronger which substantially increased their chance of survival. 然而,当他们集体行动时,人类变得更为强大,这大大增加了他们的生存几率。
Over time, being a part of a group or tribe became a survival advantage, with banishment often equaling demise. 随着时间的推移,加入一个群体或部落成为了生存优势,被放逐往往意味着死亡。
In the sense, one would face the risk of perishing alone if he or she defied social norms. 在这个意义上,一个人如果违背社会规范,就会面临孤立的风险。
Even though modern tools have drastically increased the odds of survival, we are still emotionally attached to society, the modern tribe we belong to, and yearn for social recognition. 即使现代工具已经大大增加了生存的几率,我们在感情上仍然依附于社会——我们所属的现代部落——并渴望获得社会认可。
Some of our basic motivations, such as aspiring to become wealthy, beautiful, intelligent, or powerful, can be explained by this desire. 这一渴望可以解释我们的一些基本动机,如渴望变得富有、美丽、聪明或强大。
The yearning also prevents us from behaving outside of socially acceptable norms. 这种渴望也阻止了我们进行不被社会规范所接受的行为。

That being said, I must point out that humans are mentally capable of making choices of their own will and physically capable of executing these choices. 话虽如此,我必须指出人类在精神上有能力处于自己的意愿作出选择,在肉体上有能力执行这些选择。
This is particularly true when our choices involve little, if any, interaction with the external environment. 当我们的选择同外在环境几乎没有关系(或只有恨少的关系)时,这一点尤其正确。
In this case, our choices do not conflict with societal guidelines. 在这种情况下,我们的选择并不会和社会准则产生冲突。
If one wants to pick up a restaurant for dinner in the Midtown of New York City, for example, there are many choices his or her disposal: French, Asian, American, and Mexican and so on. 例如,如果一个人想在纽约市中心地区找一家餐馆吃晚饭,会有多种选择任他/她挑选:法国菜、亚洲菜、美国菜、墨西哥菜等等。
This choice is not determined by external factors, but rather depends oa a person's own will. 这种选择不是由外部因素决定的,而是取决于一个人的个人意志。
Examples like these suggest that when ur behavior has little to do with our social environment, we can and will make choices that reflect our own volition. 这样的例子表明当我们的行为和社会环境无关时,我们可以并愿意做出能反映我们自身意愿的选择。

From the discussion above, it is clear that external and internal forces are capable of determining human behavior, and most of the time we cannot disregard either's influence. 我上面的讨论可以清楚地看出,外部和内部力量都能决定人的行为,大多数时候我们不能忽视任何一方的影响力。
But neither can we compare their importance. 但我们也无法比较它们的重要性。
In some cases, external forces determine what needs to be done but we ultimately decide how to behave while adhering to social norms 在某些情况下,外部力量决定了我们需要做什么,但在遵守社会规范的同时最终决定任何行事的人还是我们自己。
For instance, a scientist will be forced to secure funding if his or her laboratory faces financial hardship. 例如,当一个科学家的实验室面临财务困难时,他/她会被迫寻求资金。
Though this necessity is solely determined by external forces, how best to secure those funds is at the scientist's discretion: he or she can seek federal support or form a collaborative relationship with industry. 虽然这种需求完全由外部力量决定,但任何更好地获取资金是由科学家自行决定的:他/她可以寻求联邦政府的支持,或和工业界建立合作关系。
Either way, his or her action is not influenced by external factors. 无论采取哪种方式,他/她的行为都不只受到外在因素影响。
How external and internal forces can jointly shape human behavior has been demonstrated from different perspectives in this response. 本文从不同角度证明了外部和内部力量如何共同塑造人类的行为。
External forces offer us challenges and stipulate rules which must be followed but solutions are based on internal factors. 外部力量提供了挑战、规定了必须遵守的规则,但解决方案是基于内部因素的。
This makes it difficult to argue that external forces play a more significant role in determining people's behavior. 这使得我们很难认为外部力量在决定人类行为中起着更为重要的作用。2

To sum up, I have demonstrated that both external and internal forces are capable of determining people's behavior.
Given the different mechanisms through which external and internal forces shape how we behave, conclusions drawn from a hasty comparison would certainly be oversimplified.

More Knowledge, More Comprehension? - 33


As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensive, but more complex and mysterious.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement
and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position,
you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold ture and
explain how these considerations shape your position.

Since the first human gazed up at the night sky, human beings have never stopped acquiring knowledge and attempting to understand the surrounding world.
However, there is a claim that as people gain more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensible but rather more complex and mysterious.
I believe that knowledge does not make things more complex but rather reshapes our perception.
However, in the process of acquiring knowledge, some things can become more comprehensible while new mystery emerges.

There is a difference between complexity and incomprehensibility. 复杂性和不可理解性是不同的。
Although it is undeniably more challenging to understand a complicated object, being difficult to grasp does not necessarily mean that it is impossible to comprehend. 虽然外面不能否认理解复杂的对象更具有挑战性,但难以理解并不一定意味着不能理解。
Has the world become more complex as we come to know more of it? I doubt this is the case, because the world's complexity does not depend on our comprehension level. 因为我们了解更多,所以世界变得更加复杂了吗?我对这种说法存疑,因为世界的复杂性并不取决于我们的理解水平。
For example, rules governing the movements of stars have been always the same, from the time of the first stargazer, but our understanding of these laws has improved. 例如,自第一位占星师所在的时代起,星球运动的规则始终如一,但我们对这些规律的理解却进步了。
Reductionists may argue that knowledge simplifies our understanding but this view does not always hold true because we have not discovered every piece of information about the physical world. 还原主义者可能会说知识简化了我们的理解,但这一观点并不总是正确的,因为我们并没有发现有关物理世界的每一条信息。
That is, as people acquire more knowledge, new information emerge which makes things more complex to them. 也就是说,当人们获得了更多的知识,新的信息出现会让事物变得更加复杂。

As mentioned above, incomprehensibility does not arise from complexity. 如上所述,不可理解性并不来自于复杂性。
The question about whether the world becomes incomprehensible in light of new knowledge therefore requires additional discussion. 因此,关于世界是否因为新知识而变得不可理解的问题还需要进一步讨论。
Due to the disparate nature of different things, it would be an oversimplification to claim that new knowledge makes things more mysterious. 由于不同的“事物”具有截然不同的性质,宣称新知识会让事物更为神秘是一种过度简化。
New knowledge endows us with powerful tools with which to examine the things around us. 新知识为我们提供了强大的工具来考察我们周遭的事物。
For instance, advancements in laser technology, benefiting from new optic knowledge, have given us new information about biological process in human body and shed light on the mechanism of chemical reactions on an unprecedented microscopic level. 例如,受益于新的光学知识而进步的激光技术让我们了解了人体中的生物过程,并在前所未有的微观水平上阐明了化学反应的机制。
Thus, many biological and chemical processes that used t be mysteries are no comprehensible to us. 因此,我们现在可以理解许多一度难以理解的生物和化学过程。

On the other hand, new knowledge often raises new questions which cannot be answered without further inquiry. 另一方面,新知识常常引发新的问题,如果没有进一步探究我们就无法回答这些问题。
Those questions may seem to be mysterious at first glance. 这些问题乍一看似乎是难以理解的。
Expanding on the example about optics, the nature of light is still an intriguing and unresolved topic which attracts scholarly debate. 让我们扩充一些光学的例子——光的本质仍然是悬而未决,引发学术辩论。
Our current understanding is that light is both in a form of waves and particles, but this counterintuitive explanation itself seems a mystery that no one at this moment can elucidate. 目前我们的理解是,光既具备波的形式又具备粒子的形式,但这种反直觉的解释本身似乎就是一个目前无人可解的谜题。
Thus the understanding of light's true nature requires additional study.. 因此对光的真正本质的理解还需要更多研究。
Similar logic can be applied to the study of climate change. 同样的逻辑也可以应用于气候变化的研究。
It was not until Milankovitch's insolation theory that scientists could quantitatively explain and predict glacial-interglacial cycles. 直到Milankovitch提出了日照理论,科学家才得以定量解释和预测冰期-间冰期循环。
However, this knowledge raised new questions regarding mysterious events in Earth's climate history that have not yet been adequately explained. 然而,这种认知引出了新的关于地球气候历史中尚未得到充分解释的神秘事件的问题。

The fact that new knowledge raises new questions does not suggest that we are unable to understand. 事实上,新的知识提出了新的问题并不意味着我们无法理解。
On the contrary, those questions, coupled with our curiosity, drive our quest for knowledge. 相反,这些问题,伴随着我们的好奇,推动了我们队知识的求索。
For example, there are many climate events that remain unaccountable by Milankovitch theory. 例如,Milankovitch的理论无法解释很多气候现象。
In those cases, the Earth actually warmed despite very low energy flux from the Sun. 在这种情况下,尽管来自太阳的能量通量非常低,地球上实际上变得更暖了。
Such mysteries actually led to a new subfield in climate science and to many new insights, which made the Earth's climate system more comprehensible to us . 这种谜团开辟了气候科学中一个新的子领域并催生了许多新见解,使地球的气候系统变得更加容易理解了。
Mysteries are not permanent and are likely to be solved in the future. 谜团并不永远是谜团,在未来我们很有可能解决它们。

As I have discussed, the world does not become more complex as a result of new knowledge but instead we gain a more comprehensive perception of is.
New knowledge can indeed explain things we once found mysterious, but at the same time, it raise new, often puzzling questions.
However, those questions are only mysterious until they are solved.

Identification and Self-Definition - 38


It is primarily through our identification with social groups that we define ourselves.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement
and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position,
you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold ture and
explain how these considerations shape your position.

Self-definition is gained through association with social groups, but is not achieved through self-identification.
By arguing this, the author puts forth an interesting puzzle concerning the morphology of the root self.
Admittedly, being gregarious and pursuing self-definition through contact with outside groups distinguishes us from other animals.
We attend schools, we join parties, we engage in a variety of volunteer activities-it is through such social activities that we gain individual value and correctly locate ourselves.
However, I argue that in many, even most, circumstances social groups play a disappointing role in helping us to define ourselves.
In extreme circumstances, we may even be tossed about aimlessly in the turbulent ocean of society, deprived of appropriate self-definition.

To begin with, the author turns a blind eye to the great number of cases in which we fail to define ourselves through interaction with other social groups.
To exemplify this, we can consider a failed marriage, an unsuccessful job experience or a discouraging defeat in a contest.
Not only do such interaction with others fail to contribute to satisfactory self-definition, but more importantly, they could possibly strip us of the confidence needed in life and hinder our ability to positively self-identify.

Moreover, the author overlooks the vital role played by space in helping us to define ourselves.
While it might be significant to maintain contact with others, it is equally important to reserve privacy for our spirit.
Private space is especially vital in current society which is marked by the hustle-and-bustle pace of life.
Shopping malls, bars, parks, these are all paradise for those in need of animated communication others; however, a secluded study room, a quiet house in the countryside, or even the lonely street corner in New York might benefit us considerably in terms of introspection.
Through such introspection we are able to liberate ourselves from outside world's distracting forces and further attain some semblance of peace.
This peace occupies an irreplaceable space in our city dwellers' hearts.

Last but not least, as we go through different phase in life, we are bound to attempt different ways of identifying ourselves.
The author, however, fails to categorize or elaborate on those phases of human life.
It is ill-conceived to regard our life as one monotonous, tedious and variance-deprived chapter.
On the contrary, life is fraught with changes and unexpected occurrences.
Those episodes compel us to utilize different approaches to understand ourselves and acquire an appropriate sense of identity.
In the nascent stage of our lives, we strive to understand the world through communication with others.
It is this communication that helps us to gradually gain a more complete picture about the world and confidants, and we start families, sharing joy and sorrow with the ones we love.
Jobs and family enable us to define ourselves as qualified employees, partners and parents.
However, when we approach the end of our lives, we achieve a relatively exclusive status: we most frequently think about the past, both the miserable and happy times.
We become introspective of what we have been through; such history belongs to us alone and it is through these experiences that we complete the final self-identification stage.
If there was no such introspective life ritual, how pale would our lives be?

To sum up, while it is reasonable to establish positive connections with others and define ourselves through such connections, in most cases I argue that we can go further and self-identify only by forming and possessing a strong and independent ego.


Regard Someone as a Hero - 44

To Err is Human
Alexander Pope

Claim: It is no longer possible for a society to regard any living man or woman as a hero.
Reason: The reputation of anyone who is subjected to media scrutiny will eventually be diminished.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim
and the reason on which claim is based

In moder society where media coverage is ubiquitous, there is a claim that no living men or women can be regarded as heroes because their reputation, when subjected to media scrutiny, will eventually be diminished.
In my opinion, it is undeniably true that media scrutiny is capable of deteriorating one's reputation; however, such abilities do not necessarily mean a hero's positive image will collapse.
Even if heroes' imperfections are revealed, society may still regard living men or women as heroes.

In the first place, no man is perfect and to err is human, says Alexander Pope. 首先,人无完人,Alexander.Pope说过,“人非圣贤,孰能无过”。
Therefore, if every aspect of one's life is exposed to the public by the media, his or her reputation could certainly be compromised. 因此,当媒体把一个生活中的每一方面都暴露给公众,他/她的声誉肯定会受到损害。
Some of his or her behaviors may not be accepted as the moral standard for a hero. 按照对英雄所设的道德标准,他/她的一些行为可能不会被接受。
For example, a brave, heroic firefighter who is willing to risk his own life to save others' might be committing adultery, which, if revealed, would result in his reputation being defamed. 例如,一名英勇的消防员可能出轨,如果这种行为被揭露,他的声誉会受到损害。
Also, the media may exaggerate a hero's negative side in order to gain more publicity. 此外,媒体可能会夸大英雄的消极面以吸引公众的注意力。
In such extreme cases, media scrutiny could focus on a hero's derogatory remarks and bias public opinion towards him or her. 在这种极端的情况下,媒体监督可能会着重发表贬损英雄的评论并且让舆论对他/她心存偏见。

That being said, the argument above assumes that the media will excessively probe into the heroes' personalities in details and/or focus on the negative. 话虽如此,上面的论证假设了媒体会过分详尽地探讨英雄的个性并聚焦于负面之上。
This assumption, however, could bd wrong. 然后,这个假设可能是错误的。
With regard to the first part, media may not be willing to invest time and resources discovering every negative aspect of a hero's life due to limited resources and perhaps weak public resonance it can provoke. 就前者而言,媒体可能不会愿意投入时间和资源来发掘英雄生活的每一处消极面,因为他们的资源是有限的,而这么做也许激不起什么公众反应。
Furthermore, it would be unfair to assume that every media source is biased in this way. 此外,假设每家媒体都存在偏见也是不公平的。
Thanks to the First Amendment, there are many independent media sources in the United States providing information from different angles. 多亏《第一修正案》,美国有许多独立的媒体来源,从不同角度为人们提供信息。
Even if politically motivated, it would be almost impossible to require or force all media to dedicate its coverage to a hero's dark side. 即使存在政治动机,要求或迫使所有媒体都致力于报道英雄的黑暗面几乎是不可能的。

Even if a hero's reputation is diminished to some extent by media scrutiny, it is still necessary for society to regard him or her as hero. 即使媒体监督一定程度上降低了英雄的声誉,社会仍然需要将他或她视为英雄。
To understand this claim, we need to revisit the definition of hero. 要理解这个说法,我们需要重新审视英雄的定义。
Heroes are those who possess essential qualities which are admired by people. 英雄是那些拥有人们崇敬的本质的人。
In other words, it is those particular qualities, such as valor, self-sacrifice, and commitment to public interest, that make a man or woman a hero. 换句话说,正是这些品质,诸如勇气、自我牺牲和献身公益,让一个人成为英雄。
Therefore, as long as those key qualities are not falsified by the media, heroes can exist despite negativity concerning their personalities. 因此,只要这些关键品质没有被媒体篡改,尽管他们的性格也有消极的一面,英雄仍然存在。
Let's return to the aforementioned imaginary firefighter who has extramarital affair. 让我们回到前文所说假象的有婚外情的消防员。
If he indeed saves other people's lives by sacrificing his own in a blaze, it;s not surprising at all that he will still be regarded as a hero. 如果他真的为了拯救别人的生命而牺牲了自我,那他被视为英雄是很自然的。
It is the valor and commitment demonstrated through him paying the ultimate price that outweigh the stain on his character and earn him the title of hero. 他通过付出最高昂的代价展现了自己的英勇和承诺,正因此,这些品质改过了他性格上的污点,并且让他赢得了英雄的称号。

To summarize, it is true that media scrutiny has the potential to diminish one's reputation.
Because men are inherently imperfect, the media could deliberately focus on the negatives but hiss cannot be guaranteed.
The media may not necessarily broadcast only negative aspects intended to destroy a hero's positive image.
Even if the media did so, the public would still accept them because they possess key characteristics that define them as heroes.

Terms in Office - 8


Claim: In any field-business, politics, education, government-those in power should step down after five years.
Reason: The surest path to success for any enterprise is revitalization through new leadership.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim and the reason on which that claim is based.

Charismatic leadership surely comprises an irreplaceable role in any enterprise's endeavor to success; nevertheless, sometimes a leader's charisma is relentlessly tarnished by stains which seem indelible.
Sloth, misconduct and corruption are such stains that are at odds with a leader's usualy positive image.
While those blots might exert a detrimental influence on the leader's image, I have to emphasize their infrequency.
As a result, from my perspective, the author of the issue may be so pessimistic that he/she arbitrarily equates those sporadic blemishes with predestined failure and therefore fiercely advocates the revitalization of leadership every five years.

In the field of politics, or more specifically in government, delinquency and crimes do occu. 在政界(更为确切的说,在政府),渎职或犯罪行为确有发生。
Such delinquency and crimes most likely derive from persistent power maintenance and greatly hinder political achievement. 这些渎职和犯罪行为极有可能来源于长时间的权力维系,并且进一步阻碍了政治方面的任何可能的成就。
Therefore, revitalization through new leadership is highly desired for success. 因此,领导力更替对于一个团队的成功来说至关重要。
New leadership, once introduced, will bring about strict restrictions, if not a deadly crack down, on the old bureaucracy. 一旦引入,新的领导力即便无法打碎,也至少能够有效地制约陈腐的官僚作风。
Those restriction will further witness a balance of power between the new and old politicians. 这样的限制还将见证新老政治家之间的权力平衡。
As a result, a harmonious working ethic within the government is birthed and subsequent success can be expected. 因此,政府内部和谐的职业道德将因此被催生,随之而来的成功也指日可待。
The regular presidential election in the United States, as well as in many other countries, exemplifies the significance of leadership revitalization within the political field. 包括美国在内的许多国家,定期举行的总统选举便很好地印证了在政治领域里的领导力更替的重要性。
While many considerations contribute to such revitalization, the preclusion of corruption and other dishonest behaviors is no doubt one of the most important considerations. 尽管疾呼领导力更替的理由有很多,但“杜绝腐败以及其他不诚实行为”无疑是最为重要的动力。

When we turn to the field of education, however, the situation is appallingly different. 然而,当我们转向教育领域时,情况则大不一样。
When it comes to education, I disagree with this issue in terms of both its reason and claim. 换句话说,当谈到教育行业时,不论是从原因和结论来看,我都反对这种观点。
I contend that the surest path to success in universities, high schools and other education institutions, is not through the revitalization of leadership but rather through educators'(including the presidents and teachers of those schools) insightful decisions about vital policies. 在大学,高中或其他教育机构,我认为获得成功的最为保险的路径,不是对领导力进行更替,而是教育者(包括该校校长和老师)对于核心政策的睿智判断。
This insight, in most cases, springs from an accumulation of teaching experience. 这种洞察力,在大部分情况中,来源于教学经验的累积。
A sufficiently long teaching history further requires that the educators maintain position stability, which frequently exceeds a period of five years. 一段足够长的教学经验需要教育者能够稳定地处于一个职位上,而这一般需要超过五年的时间。
For supporting examples, we can only imagine a university undergoing a steady change of department directors, even presidents within a short period of years, or, perhaps even several months. 举例来说,如果一个大学经历了系主任的持续更替,或者不到一年、甚至只有几个月的持续校长更替。
This leadership fluctuation would definitely lead to an interruption of educational policies with students being the victims. 这种领导人的替换势必导致教育政策的紊乱,并最终使学生成为受害者。
However, if the leaders of the university are insightful and experienced enough to bring the university to a higher level, their tenure can be extended. 然而,如果大学领导人具备足够的洞察力以及经验,来进一步提升大学的水准,那么他们的任期则可以被延长。

Finally, if we switch our attention to the field of business, we find that changes in leadership are much more flexible. 最后,如果我们将注意力投向商界,我们会发现“领导力更替”这个话题将变得更为灵活。
All that a new leader should be equipped with is the potential or capability to bring maximum profits. 一位新领导最应该具备的是带来最大收益的潜力或能力。
In the business world, unanticipated bargaining success could endow an unsung Joe with widespread reputation which even a much older businessman would covert. 在商界,一场不经意的成功交易可能使一个无名小卒在一夜之间享有极高的、让打拼多年的商场老手也垂涎不已的名声。
However, it is of equal possibility that an eminently respected entrepreneur could lose his/her crown overnight for an unexpected failure in a regular negotiation. 然而,同样可能的是,因为一场普通交易的惨败,一位驰骋商界多年的老手在一夕之间失掉他/她的“王冠”。
From this perspective, neither the reason nor the claim of this issue stands tenable in the business filed. 因此,从商业角度来看,作者的说法,无论是从理由还是结论都无法站稳脚跟。
Leadership hings on profits-this allegation may sound harsh, but few would dispute its validity. “领导力取决于利润”,这句话虽然直白,但极少有人质疑。

While every enterprise should strive for success, the means via which the enterprise should utilize is conditional on more thorough considerations.
As a result, whether a leader should step down after five years requires further deliberations.

Convincing Brings Value - 75


Claim: The best test of an argument is its ability to convince someone with an opposing viewpoint.
Reason: Only by being forced to defend an idea against the doubts and contrasting views of others
does one really discover the value of that idea.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim and the reason on which that claim is based.

To bestow an argument, idea, contention or assertion with value, we must attempt to persuade those who hold contrasting views. 为了赋予一个论点、观点、主张或声称以价值,我们必须试图去说服那些持相反观点的人。
Once we manage to convince our opponents, our argument seemingly gains fresh significance. 一旦我们成功地说服对手,我们的论点似乎就获得了更多的重要性。
This inclination to persuade others with our ideas presumably derives from the action embodied in the verb argue: to persuade people with relevant reasons that we are correct. 这种试图用我们的观点去说服对方的倾向,可能来自于动词“辩论”所蕴含的动作:用相关的理由去让对方相信“我方正确”。
While this might be one way to prove our argument's validity and value, we do not always need to resort to this method. 虽然这可能是一条提升我们论证有效性和价值的路径,但我们不一定非要采用这样的方式。
Additionally, sometimes attempts to persuade might even prove futile. 此外,“尽可能说服对方的做法”有时被证明是一种无效的尝试。

To begin with, I must express my appreciation for the reason part of this issue. 首先,我对这道题目的reason部分表示赞同。
It is exactly at the moment when we are forced to defend an idea against doubts and contrasting views that we begin to form a comprehensive understanding of the idea's value. 每当我们被迫去辩护一个受到质疑或者存在对立看法的观点时,其实已经就这个观点的价值形成更为全面的认知。
It is also at such a moment that we should grasp the opportunity to show our rivals the advantages of our argument and earn their approval. 也就是这个时候,我们会抓住机会向我们的对手展示己方论点的优势,并尝试获得他们的认同。
This perspective is emphasized by how a debate takes place. 这种思维在辩论中体现得最为明显。
In a debate, speakers strive to elucidate the advantages or the disadvantages of an issue iin order to convince their opponents, as well as the audience of their point of view. 在一场辩论中,为了说服对手以及他们的支持者,发言者就一个问题努力阐明其优势与劣势。
It is also during this phase that the audience comes to establish a holistic understanding of the topic and its value. 也正是在这个阶段,观众对这个话题和它的价值建立起更为完善的认知。
In addition, even though the debaters may not be utterly convinced by their opponents, they ultimately benefit from questioning their opponents and defending their own view, and further build up an unprecedented understanding of their argument's value. 另外,尽管辩论者并未完全被他们的对手说服,但他们也终将通过质问对手、辩护己方立场而获益,从而进一步深化他们对己方论点的价值的认知。

However, tenable as the assertion may hold in most circumstance that an idea receives value by overshadowing its opponents, I contend that the value of an argument can be also realized in other ways. 然而,通过征服对手来使观点获得价值,尽管这种说法在大多数情况中都具有说服力,但我依然认为一个论点的增值还可以通过其他方式获得。
Consequently, this raises doubt about the issue's reason. 这也就质疑了这道题目的reason部分。
Since we do not argue exclusively to disprove our rivals, but also to clarify our own principles, or support allegations, we do not always have to start a battle in which one argument is bound to knock down another. 由于我们争论的目的并不只是为了推翻对手,同时还有阐释我方的原则,或者支持我方的论点等目的,所以我们就没有必要总是掀起一场“只有一方能够幸存”的论战。
Academic papers serve as a simple but persuasive example. 比如说,学术论文是一个简单且富有说服力的例子。
It is not difficult to find our that not all the articles we read, write or cite attempt to disprove others, but in more circumstances concentrate on either clarification of the methodologies the paper itself utilizes, or on supplementary explanation to similar studies. 不难发现,并不是所有我们看到的、写的、引用的文章都是以推翻其他文章为目的;相反,在更多的情况下,这些文章专注于对论文本身采用的方法论的阐释,或者对相似研究进行的补充说明。
One semester I read a series of articles written by archaeologists, historians and anthropologists regarding ancient Chinese rituals. 记得有一个学期,我阅读了一系列有考古学家、历史学家和人类学家写作的有关古代中国仪式的文章。
Despite their contrasting arguments, these scholars did not focus on discrediting each other's work. 尽管这些文章的观点不同,但文章的作者并未执着于推翻彼此的观点。
On the contrary, they simply offer different interpretations of the same issue. 相反,他们只是就相同的问题提出不同的解释。
The value of these papers is therefore achieved through their interpretations rather than through contention between the authors. 因此,这些论文的价值来源于其各自的阐释而非对彼此观点的推翻。

What is more, the writer's over-optimistic attitude is betrayed in the claim of the issue, which is supported by an unsubstantiated assumption: everyone can be convinced by an opposing viewpoint. 另外,这个题目的claim部分还暴露了作者过度乐观的态度,因为claim部分被一个为被证实的假设所支持:每个人都能被相反的观点说服。
This assumption further theorizes that an absolute truth exists, or to put it in another way: everything can be explained in only one way. 这个假设还进一步假定:绝对真理存在于世,或者说,所有事物都只能有唯一解释。
Clearly, this is not true. 很明显,这并不正确。
THe example previously discussed about three different interpretations of one issue support my opinion. 前文讨论过的对同一话题的三种不同解释的例子能够支持这一观点。
Since academic research is based on different methodologies, scholars can never be truly convinced by each other; otherwise they would have used identical systems but not diverse ones. 由于学术研究基于不同的方法论,所以学者之间并不能完全说服彼此:除非他们采用相同的系统。
In addition, in some circumstances, the superficial debate between two arguments actually reveals an irreconcilable conflict, which concerns more fundamental factors, such as benefits. 另外,在一些情况下,两方之间的一次肤浅的争论也可能揭示出无法调和的冲突,而这种冲突往往与更为基本的元素相关,比如利益。
For exemplifications, we can look at strife between political parties all over the world. 举例来说,我们可以关注世界各地的政党间的冲突。
Due to the irreconcilable contention about respective interests, their quarrels never cease, and probably no one can foretell the day when they wil actually convince each other. 因为基于各自利益的不可调和的争论,题目之间的争吵永不停息,并且也无人能够预测到他们能够说服彼此的那一天。

To sum up, while I partly agree with the issue;s reason, I reserve ny approval of both the claim and its assumption.
That is to say, the value of an argument may be realized through debate with someone holding a contrasting viewpoint, yet we cannot rely on that to always be true.


People’s Will or Own Decisions - 86

of the people, by the people and for the people.
Abraham Lincoln

Some people believe that government officials must carry out the wil of the people they serve.
Others believe that officials should base their decisions on their own judgment.

Write a response in which you discuss which view more closely aligns with your own position and
explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position,
you should address both of the views presented.

Which criterion should be given more weight when assessing government officials, their determination to carry out the will of people they serve or their ability to stand by their own decisions?
While some designate government officials as public servants, others appreciate officials' resolution to make their own judgment, with public's will relegated to a secondary concern.
While both of these views have merit, I argue that they are not necessarily mutually exclusive.

On the one hand, I concede that government officials are created by the demands from the people they serve and therefore officials should behave in accordance with the will of those people. 一方面,我认为政府官员(这个角色)是由人民的需求所创造的,因此官员的决策一个符合人民的意愿。
First, government's central role in regulating its nation's affairs obliges officials to work for their citizen's benefit. 首先,由于政府在国家事务中扮演核心角色,所以政府官员必须为人民谋福利。
In addition, government officials are simultaneously citizens themselves, which gives them unique insight and understanding of citizen request. 另外,政府官员同时也是人,这赋予了题目独特的视角以及对人民需求的了解。
While Abraham Lincoln has perished in history long ago, we could still see every generation of government officials bestirring themselves indefatigably at their positions, echoing Lincoln's prestigious motto of the people, by the people and for the people. 尽管亚伯拉罕·林肯是因为相当久远的历史人物,但至今我们仍能看到每一任政府官员都在不厌其烦地引用他的至理名言以激励自己:“民治、民有、民享”。
Those officials prioritize what the public desire not only because they derive their power from the public, but also because they are citizens themselves and accordingly benefit from their own achievements. 这些政府官员之所以重视人民的需求,不仅是因为他们的权力来源于大众,还在于他们自身也是人民,并将最终受益于自己的政绩。

In great contrast, people who believe that officials should base their decisions on their own judgment assign little importance to the will of the people. 相反,有些人认为官员应该根据自己的判断所做决定,所以不必太在意人民的需求。
From this perspective, officials' individual preference takes absolute precedence. 这种观点认为,官员个人的偏好理应享有优先权。
While this claim might initially sound somewhat implausible and might even remind us of obdurate bureaucracy or headstrong leaders, it can in some circumstances serve the greater good. 尽管这种说法乍听之下显得有些不可思议,甚至会让人想起那些刚愎自用的官僚机构或自大顽固的领导人,但在某些情况下,它的确可以带来更广泛的益处。
Officials confronted by dilemmas which force them to choose between the public's wishes and their own judgment may choose to sacrifice the former for the latter. 到底听从公众的意愿还是个人的判断?面临这样的困局,一些官员们会选择牺牲前者而选择后者。
We cannot call those officials tyrannical, however, since their actions are based on the long-term interests which will benefit the majority. 然而,我们不能将这些官员视作蛮横暴虐,因为他们的所为是从长远利益出发的,并将最终造福大多数人。
Roosevelt's New Deal sufficiently exemplifies my argument. 其中,罗斯福新政便能充分印证我的论点。
Had Roosevelt not subordinated capitalist interest and conjured up a marriage between market economy and government regulation, current Americans might still be suffering from the effects of the Great Depression. 如果罗斯福当时没有压制资本家的利益,并创造性地将“市场经济与政府干预”结合起来,当今美国可能仍在大萧条的泥潭中苦苦挣扎。
Even though Roosevelt implemented a series of policies in spite of business opposition, we do not judge him to have acted irresponsibly or autocratically. 尽管罗斯福不顾商业街的反对,实施了这一系列政策,我们也很难将他的决策视作不负责任或独裁。
On the contrary, we applaud his policies because they stemmed from comprehensive concerns of what would benefit Americans overall. 相反,我们称赞他的政策,因为它脱胎于对美国未来整体利益的综合考量。
In this way, Roosevelt well embodies an efficient leader who struck a harmonious balance between the public's wishes and hist wo decision. 这样看来,通过平衡公众意愿与个人决策之间的关系,罗斯福成功地展现了一位高效领导人所具备的素质。

The above-stated examination of the two vies discloses my appreciation for both of them.
Nevertheless this is not to say that I suggest appraising these two perspectives in isolation.
Rather, I would like to view the process of policy-making of government officials as a continuum that includes public voices and officials' individual decisions.
An insightful official should and is able to make decisions on the basis of the will of the people he serves; meanwhile citizens should attempt to understand that those policies have undergone thorough consideration regarding the potential benefits and consequences.
The ideal world I depict is one in which leaders and public enjoy a harmonious relationship and both benefit from policy decisions.

Goal of Politics - 151


Some people claim that the goal of politics should be the pursuit of an ideal. Others argue that the goal
should be finding common ground and reaching consensus.

Write a response in which you discuss which view more closely aligns with your own position and
explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position,
you should address both of the views presented.

What is the ultimate purpose or goal of politics supposed to be? There are two seemingly contradictory view on this question.
One side argues that the ultimate goal of politics should be pursuit ideals, while the other regards finding common ground and reaching consensus as the goal.
I tend to give my support to the former view based on the nature of politics, while I object to the latter since it may result in many negative consequences.

Firstly, the ultimate goal of politics in my opinion should be constructing a world in which people can enjoy their lives and can fulfill their dreams by utilizing their talents and potentials to the maximum. 首先,我认为政治的最终目标应该是建设一个人们可以最大限度地发挥他们的才能和潜力,从而享受生活、实现梦想的世界。
In this light, this world is certainly idealistic. 就此而论,这个世界当然是理想主义的。
To understand why such an ideal world should be the goal of politics, one must first understand what politics stands for and where it originates. 要理解为什么这样的一个理想的世界是政治的目标,人们首先要理解政治时代的意义和它的起源。
Politics rose from a contract between governors and citizens, where the people authorized the governors' power and governors, in turn, provided essential services to the people. 政治起源于统治者和公民之间的契约,人民授予统治者权利,而统治者反过来为人民提供必要的服务。
To promote the well being of the people was the ultimate intended goal of this contract, and it is through this contract that politics came into existence. 促进人民的福祉是这项契约的终极预定目标,正是通过这项契约才诞生了政治。
Politics has inherited this contract's goal and should therefore strive to serve the people by constructing an ideal world. 政治继承了这项契约的目标,因此应该通过建设一个理想的世界为人民服务。

On the contrary, it is dangerous to abide by the view that the goal of politics should be finding common ground and reaching consensus. 相反,坚持政治目标应该找到共同点和达成共识的观点是危险的。
When there is no ideal principle to guide our behavior, our moral ground becomes shaky,. 当没有理想的原则指导我们的行为是,我们的道德之地就变得摇摇欲坠了。
For example, in this pragmatic ideology, we may sacrifice innocent people for the sake of so-called consensus. 例如,在这种务实为上的意识形态中,我们可能会为了所谓的共识而牺牲无辜的民众。
Throughout human history, there are mny incidents in which the countries collude in reaching peace and consensus, but at the cost of other small nations and in violation of the moral principles. 人类历史上充满了大国之间为了实现和平和达成共识而密谋牺牲小国利益的故事,这显然是有违于道德准则的。
From a humanitarian perspective the result is undeniably tragic. 从人道主义的角度来看这无疑是一个悲剧。

That being said, finding common ground and reaching consensus are still pivotal in politics. 话虽如此,找到共同点和达成共识在政治中仍然是至关重要的。
Without these, pursuing ideals could have disastrous political consequences. 没有这些,追求理想可能会产生灾难性的政治后果。
Similar examples can be readily found in the sporadic turbulence of the current society. 现代社会中偶尔会发生的动乱也是很好的例子。
These examples demonstrate how dangerous it can be when we commit ourselves to an ideal zealously without proper controls. 这些例子表明,当我们没有适度控制的情况下,一头热地献身于理想是多么危险。
Modern democracy based on negotiation and finding common ground, on the other hand, shows us the power of compromise and consensus. 另一方面,基于谈判和寻求共同点的现代政治制度向我们展示妥协和共识的力量。

To conclude, I believe that the goal of politics should be pursuing ideals rather than finding common ground and reaching consensus.
However, even though common ground and consensus should not be the goal of politics, it does not mean that they are of no significance.
On the contrary, common ground and compromise are essential in controlling zealousness and help us realize our ideals.

Save Plant and Animal Species - 67


Some people believe that society should try to save every plant and animal species,
despite the expense to humans in effort, time, and financial well-being. Others believe
that society need not make extraordinary efforts, especially at a great cost in money and jobs to save endangered species.

Write a response in which you discuss which view more closely aligns with your own position and
explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position,
you should address both of the views presented.

With the growing influence of environmentalism, many consider the conservation of endangered species a moral obligation that humankind must acknowledge and fulfill.
Some even argue that society must strive to save every plant and animal species at any const, while there is a conflicting view.
Society should not, such a view insists, expend too many resources, which could otherwise be used to create wealth and jobs, trying to save endangered species.
My stace is slightly more aligned with the former, though my argument contains the specific prerequisite that society must save endangered species only if a species' extinction would lead to economic loss greater than the cost of saving that species.

Before elaborating on my reasoning, it is necessary to address a number of potential objections based on the nature of my view. 在阐述我的论证前,有必要先基于我的观点的本质来讨论一些潜在的反对看法。
I expect initial emotional responses to likely be negative from the public. 我预计最初的负面反应可能来自于公众。
Environmentalists, for exam[le, would strongly condemn my position and argue that driving a species to extinction is a crime against nature, since every species is equal and humans are not entitled to slaughter other species. 比如,环保主义者就会强烈谴责我的观点,他们认为让某一物种灭绝是对自然的犯罪,因为所有的物种都是平等的,而人类没有权利屠杀其他物种。
However, extinction is not new to nature. 然后,对大自然来说,灭绝并不是什么新鲜事。
It has happened throughout Earth's long geologic history, long before modern humans occupied every continent except Antarctica. 灭绝贯穿于地球漫长的地质历史中,早在现代人类占领除了南极洲以外的每个大陆之前就有。
Geological discoveries inform us of five major extinction events in the last 400 million years; in this short geological period, more than three quarters of life on Earth aws wiped out. 地质发现告诉我们在过去的四亿年中发生了五次重要的生物群灭绝;在这短暂的地质时代,地球上四分之三以上的生物都灭绝了。
Consequently, human beings are not morally bound to preserve the status quo of Earth's current biological diversity. 因此,人类在道德上并不一定要保护地球生物多样性的现状。
We should not save every species without considering their socioeconomic consequences. 我们不应该不考虑社会经济后果去保护每一个物种。

This does not necessarily mean we should never take action to preserve endangered species. 但这并不意味着我们不应该采取行动保护濒危物种。
If the resulting loss from a species' extinction exceeds the cost of saving it, we should definitely protect it. 如果一个物种灭绝造成的损失大于保护它的成本,我们当然应该保护它。
Consider the following three examples. 让我们来思考下列三个例子。
We appreciate pandas som uch that the loss these species would be regarded as a heavy emotional loss. 我们如此喜欢大熊猫,每只大熊猫的死亡都让我们十分痛苦。
We support the protection of raptors, such as eagles and falcons, because their extinction would allow rodents to proliferate and result in significant crop losses. 我们支持保护猛禽,例如鹰和猎鹰,是因为它们的灭绝将使得啮齿动物变多、危害农作物。
And some endangered species have genetic and research value, which could lead to cures for diseases like cancer. 一些濒危物种具有遗传学或者其他的研究价值,也许能让我们治愈疾病——比如癌症。
The definition of loss in these cases encompasses broader social consequences rather than being solely financial. 这些案例中的“损失”的定义囊括了更广泛的社会结果,而不是仅仅指经济损失。

Another reason we should save a species is that it provides a relatively objective and measurable benchmark to assess our policy. 我们应该保护物种的另一个原因是,它提供了相对客观和可量化的基准来评估我们的政策。
What would happen if we spared no expense to save every endangered species? What if the resources expended saving them could be used to save refugees of wars and famine? 如果我们不惜代价地拯救每一个濒危物种,会发生什么事?如果节省这些花掉的资源可以用来拯救战争和饥荒中的难民呢?
It may be acceptable to deem humans and other species as equal but when they are in conflict should other species take priority over human life? 也许我们会接受万物平等的观点,但当人同其他生物互相冲突时,其他物种的生命优于人命吗?
Assuming responsibility for the protection of all species is dangerous and violates basic human principles, which are the foundation of modern civilization. 认为保护所有物种是人类的责任是危险的,违反了作为现代文明基础的基本的人道原则。
Therefore, we must utilize reasonable methods when deciding whether or not to save a species from extinction. 因此,我们必须运用合理的方法来决定是否应该拯救一个濒危物种。

The real challenges is how to evaluate the loss of a species. 真正的挑战在于如何评估物种的损失。
This is not a question that can be sufficiently addressed in this short response, but simple classification into four categories can elucidate hwo the value of a species is ascertained. 这篇短文中无法充分讨论这个问题,但简单的四分类法可以帮助阐明如何确定一个物种的价值。
The first is direct economic value associated with domesticated species. 第一类是与驯养物种相关的直接经济价值。
The second is economic value associated with the ecological function of a species, exemplified by raptors which prey on rodents. 第二类是同一物种的生态功能相关的经济价值,例如捕食啮齿动物的猛禽。
The third is a species' research value. 第三类是物种的研究价值。
And the final category is cultural, religious, and aesthetic value, though this is admittedly more difficult to determine. 最后一类是文化、宗教、审美价值,虽然这个类别确实更加难以确定。

To summarize, I do not advocate allowing all endangered species to go extinct but believe it is unwise to strive to rescue every endangered species out of vague moral obligations.
We should take action only when the loss of an entire species outweighs the costs associated with saving it.


Maintain the highest Ethical and Moral standers - 104


To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim.
In developing and supporting your position, be sure to address the most compelling reasons and/or examples
that could be used to challenge your position

A leader is elected to lead the government and serve the people.
The personalities of leaders have always been the center of political discussions.
Some people claim that an official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards in order to be an effective leader.
From my point of view, people with high moral standards will be more inclined to be effective leaders but these high standards do not necessarily achieve effectiveness.
In some cases, remaining loyal to high moral principles without any chance of compromise will weaken a leaders' effectiveness.

Before going any further, it is necessary to clarity the definition of effective. 在进一步展开论述之前,我们有必要澄清“有效力”的定义。
Since the mission of a political leader, in my view, is to unite the people, distribute limited resources, and make important decisions to ensure social prosperity. 在我看来,由于政治领袖的使命是团结人名,分配有效资源和做出重要决策以确保社会繁荣。
Simply put, an effective leader must promote the welfare of the people he or she serves. 简单来说,有效力的领导必须提升他/她所服务的人们的福祉。
WIth this definition, we can now discuss how moral standards impact a leader's effectiveness. 在这一定义下,现在我们可以讨论道德标准如何影响领导者的效力了。

Maintaining high ethical and moral standards can definitely promote a leader's effectiveness because his or her personality will attract support and cooperation from the public. 维持高道德标准当然可以提升一位领导者的效力,因为他/她的性格将会吸引公众的支持和合作。
In other words, his or her political views are more likely to be accepted by the people, making political goals more likely to achieve. 换句话说,他/她的政治观点更有可能被人接受,更有可能实现政治目的。
For example, in Chinese history an emperor with high moral standards was usually admired and loved by his people. 例如,在中国历史中,一位高道德标准的皇帝常常受到子民的欣赏和爱戴。
People were more willing to execute the emperor's orders, facilitating the accomplishment of his political goals. 人们更愿意执行皇帝的命令,加快完成他的政治目标。
That is why strong, prosperous dynasties, such as these of the Han, Tang and Song, were founded by emperors with high moral principles. 这就是为什么强大而繁荣的王朝,如汉、唐、宋,都是由具有高道德原则的皇帝建立的。

However, effectiveness does not necessarily originate in the more standards. 然而,效力并不一定来源于道德标准。
The possession of high moral standards cannot guarantee a leader will be effective nor can a leader's effectiveness be denied if he or she does not possess superior moral qualities. 拥有高道德标准并不能保证领导人一定有效力;若一位领导人并不具有高道德素质,我们也不能否认他/她的效力。
For instance, imagine a country plagued by terrorism. 例如,假想一个饱受恐怖主义困扰的国家。
One of the primary goals of the country's leaders in this scenario is to defend the people they serve. 这个国家领导人的主要目标之一就是保卫人民。
If they could lead the nation to win the war on terror, despite some immoral means taken to achieve the goal, they must be considered effective. 如果他们能够带领国家赢得反恐困扰的国家战争的胜利,那么即便在这个过程中他们采用了不道德的手段,他们也应该被认为是卓有成效的领导人。
Some may argue that without high moral qualities leaders will be despised or even overthrown. 有些人可能认为没有高道德素质的领导人会被鄙视乃至推翻。
How can a leader be effective when he or she is not is power? Leaders may lose power if they are morally despicable but they are not required to have the highest moral standards. 如果一个领导者没能上台,他/她还如何发挥效力呢?道德卑下的领导者可能会失去权利,但他们并不需要最高的道德标准。
People can be quite tolerant when it comes to their leader's morality. 在领导者道德问题上,人们可以相当宽容。
As long as a leader's moral qualities do not jeopardize the people's interests, minor defects can be ignored. 若领导者的道德素养不会损害人民的利益,人们会忽视他们的小缺陷。
After all, given the definition of effectiveness above, an immoral leader may accomplish his or her mission if he or she is able to identify critical social goals and has the skills to coordinate governmental operations. 毕竟,鉴于上述对效力的定义,如果一个不道德的领导者能确定关键的社会目标并具备协调政府运作的能力,他/她也能完成自己的使命。
These are the true sources of effectiveness. 这些才是效力的真正来源。

In additions, in some cases adhering to the highest moral standards actually backfires, because some high moral principles, such as honesty and integrity, require actions that place national interest in jeopardy. 此外,在某些情况下,坚持最高的道德标准会适得其反,因为有些高尚的道德原则,如诚实和正直,要求采取使国家利益受损的行为。
If, for example, a nations's leader is asked to reveal confidential and sensitive information concerning national defense, he or she ought to, from a purely moral perspective, be candid and not withhold any information. 例如,如果一个国家的领导人被要求披露有关国家的机密和敏感信息,从纯粹的道德角而言,他/她应该坦诚相待、不隐瞒任何信息。
However, we could easily recognize the danger of revealing such information to the public, which could be abused by terrorists. 然而,我们很容易认识到向公众披露这些信息的危险性,因为这些信息可能会被恐怖分子所滥用。
Some may argue this example is too absolute and rare and thus cannot serve as compelling evidence. 或许有些人会说这个例子太极端罕见了,因此不能作为令人信服的例子。
This scenario, however, reflects the inherent conflict between moral ideology and reality, in which compromises are often required. 然而,这种情况反映了道德和现实之间的内在冲突,这种冲突往往要求妥协。
Such conflict is ubiquitous in the real world. 这样的冲突在现实世界是普遍存在的。

To summarize, it is evident that high moral qualities do not equate to effective leadership.
In some cases a leader's loyalty without exception to high moral principles can create serious problems and even harm social interests.
That being said, possessing high moral standards can help leaders achieve their political mission, because such qualities will help them earn people's trust and support and facilitate governmental efficiency.

The Major and Other Filed - 13


Universities should require every student to take a variety of courses outside the student’s filed of study.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim.
In developing and supporting your position, be sure to address the most compelling reasons and/or
examples that could be used to challenge your position.

After undergoing a marathon journey from primary to high school and then to university, students are confronted by another dilemma: how to strike a balance between their majors and courses in other fields.
A similar quandary must have perplexed educators for decades as they grappled with designing university courses.
While at first glance it may seem appealing to require students to take various courses outside of their fields of study.
I remain doubtful of such a proposal.
If we hastily carry out the advice, it would probably jeopardize education's purpose of facilitating students' well-roundedness.

Advocates of this claim wil reject my position. 这条建议的拥护者可能会反对我的观点。
They argue that knowledge gained from other fields contributes to innovative approaches to understanding the majors. 他们也许认为,从其他专业获得的知识能够为学生深入理解其专业贡献新的途径。
The blending of different methodologies from various fields exemplifies this argument. 各领域的方法论的综合似乎能够佐证这一观点。
For supporting examples, we can no further turn to the cooperation of linguistics and literature and the combination of math and economics. 其中,最为恰当的例子莫过于语言学与文学的穿插,教学与经济学的交织。
What bind these pairs are similar methodologies. 相似的方法论将这些组合成功勾连起来。
By transferring a methodology from one field to another, students are able to understand the essence of both fields and this leads to the emergence of creative ideas and more profound understanding. 通过将一个领域中的方法论转移到另一个领域,学生们能够同时理解这两个领域的精髓,并在此基础上教育部催生各类新颖的观点以及更为深刻的理解。
However, not all fields relate as readily as the aforementioned pairs, so we cannot expect to apply principles from any field to another. 然而,并非所有领域都如前面列举的组合那般紧密相连,我们不能期望任何领域之间的原理都能相互适用。
Therefore, only when the courses share similar methodological principles can the author's recommendation come into effect. 因此,只有在方法论原理近似的科目之间,作者的建议才能产生实际意义。

Opposition to my argument also comes from current students' limited range of knowledge and narrow horizons. 反对我的观点还可能提到:当今学生的有限知识与狭窄视角。
From this point of view, university students should be equipped with holistic capabilities in diverse fields so that they can better accustom themselves to diverse work in the future. 从这个角度来看,大学生确实应该具备多种领域的综合能力,以便于题目为了能够更好地适应各种工作。
In modern society we are not surprised to encounter a professional lawyer who excels at public speaking; not will it shock us when a mathematician assumes the role of a philosopher. 在现代社会,如果遇到一名职业律师精通公开演讲,我们不会感到惊讶;同样,如果看到数学家能够像哲学家一样思考,我们也不会诧异。
An abundance of these generalists demonstrates the very advantage of a mastery of comprehensive skills and expertise. 大量的通才向我们反复证明掌握多门技巧和专长的益处。
Nevertheless, I argue that generalists choose to be excellent, but are not required to be. 然而,我认为通才的产生是自行选择的结果,而非强制要求使然。
It is their insatiable desire for knowledge that drives them to conquer new fields one after another, and it is their proficiency in the previous fields that enables them to excel in the new ones. 正式由于只是本身永不满足的欲望,使其能够不断征服新的领域;也正是因为对前一领域知识的精通,帮助其在后续领域中占据优势。
Students nowadays are exceedingly short of time and universities should foster, in most circumstances, specialists rather than generalists. 当今学生的时间已然十分有限,在大部分情况下,大学应该培养专才而非通才。
Consequently, while we welcome generalists, it might be more reasonable if we step back from the decision requiring students to choose courses in various disciplines, and adopt an alternative policy: encourage them to take extra courses and do whatever we can to facilitate this process. 因此,尽管欢迎通才,但更为合理的做法是:我们放弃要求学生选修大量非专业课程的决定,转而采取另一条政策:鼓励学生选修非专业课程,并尽一切可能帮助他们加速成为通才。

Although, I maintain that encouraging course selection may function better than a mandatory requirement, some people may dispute my position. 尽管我认为鼓励而非强制学生选课会达到更好的效果,但有人可能会站出来反对我的观点。
They claim that the latter overshadows the former in terms of efficiency, since sluggishness is human nature and it is only through compulsory course requirements that students will really make progress in their major fields. 从效率来看,他们认为后者明显强于前者,因为懒惰是人类的天性,所以只有通过强制选课,学生们才能在其本专业领域取得进步。
The beginning of every course, they argue, inevitably stumbles on questioning and even emphatic repudiation; however, such questioning and repudiation will be followed by subsequent acceptance and students will quickly absorb new knowledge. 他们可能相信,一开始这些课程会不可避免地遭受学生们的质疑甚至怨怼;但是,这样的质疑或斥责将逐渐被接纳所取代,随后学生将开始迅速吸收新的知识。
Consistent might this claim appear with the reality, I tend to say that students do not learn for the sake of learning, and instead they learn in order to pass tests. 然而在我看来,与这条建议更为相符的现实是:学生并不会为了学习而学习,相反,会为了通过考试而学习。
Whatever from is used to test students, be it an exam, a paper submission of group work, students always tend to focus on the test itself, but not on the accumulation of knowledge. 不论以任何形式出现的考试:测验、个人作业或者小组作业,学生们总会注重测试本身,而非任何知识上的积累。
Without adjusting students' attitude towards learning the introduction of various new courses will remain well-intentioned but will inevitably result in a meaningless struggle against the exam-oriented education system. 如果不对学生们的学习态度进行调整,而贸然引入各类非专业课程,那么此举只能停留在好心办坏事的层面,并最终使学生陷以考试为导向的教育系统中,做者毫无意义的挣扎。

Taking extra courses outside one's original field goes far beyond the decision of whether or not to take them, but raises more fundamental and far-reaching issues.
We may tentatively implement the issue's recommendation, but a complete change in the design of university courses require more careful consideration.


Interest or Job Orientation - 39


College students should be encouraged to pursue subjects that interest them rather than the courses that seem most likely to lead to jobs.

Writer a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with then recommendation and explain your reasoning for the position you take.
In developing and supporting your position, describe specific circumstances in which adopting
the recommendation would or would not be advantageous and explain how these examples shape your position.

Should college students be encouraged to take classes that truly interest them or select courses that seem most likely to increase their competitiveness in the job market?
From my point of view, pursuing interests should be prioritized over practical concerns but students with financial difficulties may find it more desirable to take courses that will lead to decent jobs.
It is also worth pointing our that students can take courses based on Interest while also taking classes specifically improve their employment prospects.

Interest is the most powerful motivator in students' academic endeavors so pursing subjects which interest them may lead to greater academic achievements. 兴趣是学生学术活动中最有利的激励因素,因此让学生追求他们最有兴趣的学科能带来更大的学术成就。
When students face challenges in their classes, they must have a firm belief to carry on or they might simply quit. 当学术在课堂上面临挑战是,我们必须怀有坚定的信念才能继续下去,不然他们可能就会放弃。
Although the prospect of a well-paid job may seem like a strong motive, it is actually far less effective than personal interest. 虽然高薪工作的前景似乎是一个强烈的动机,但它事实上远不如个人兴趣有效。
This is because when students strive for decent careers, it takes a long time for their efforts to pay off 这是因为当学生为体面的工作而努力时,体面的努力需要很长时间才能获得回报。
Consequently, their motivation could fail whereas personal interest could sustain them. 因此,他们的积极性可能受挫,然而个人兴趣缺可以让他们继续。
Therefore, in order to make greater intellectual achievements, students should be encouraged to enroll in classes that interest them. 因此为了取得更大的智力成就,我们应当鼓励学生参加他们感兴趣的课程。

Behind the claim that students should take courses likely to result in jobs is the assumption that it is possible to determine whether or not a specific class is capable of doing so. 主张学生参加有助于就业的课程的背后是这样一个假设:我们可以确定某门课程有这个作用。
This assumption may not always hold true because the job market changes quickly and can be hard to make accurate prediction. 这一假设并不一定总是正确的,因为就业市场变化很快,很难做出正确的预测。
For example, in the field of computer sciences, there are incessant changes in prevalent programming language. 例如,在计算机科学领域,流行的编程语言正在不断变化。
A few years ago, C was the industrial standard so courses in that language would have been helpful when searching for a job. 几年前,C语言是工业标准,因此C语言课程对于找工作是有帮助的。
It did not take long, however, for Java and Python to become dominant and knowledge in C is no longer valuable,. 但好景不长,Java和Python变成了主流语言,C语言知识不再有价值。
In short, such useful courses can become obsolete by the time students graduate because of the short timescale of changes in the job market. 简而言之,因为就业市场时常发生变化,这些“有用”的课程在学生毕业的时候可能会过时。
This is clearly not a desirable out come for students. 这对学生而言显然不是一个理想的结果。

However students experiencing financial difficulties may depend on a promising career to improve their (or their family's) economic situation. 然而,财务困难的学生困难需要一份有前途的工作来改善他们(或他们的家庭)的经济情况。
They may prefer to place more emphasis on courses that can earn them a better job than what they are interested. 他们可能更喜欢把重点放在那些能为他们赢得更好工作的课程,而不是他们感兴趣的课程上。
In this particular scenario, the argument that a future career is not strong motivation does not hold true because the desire to change one's fate can be extremely powerful. 在这种情况下,“未来职业并不是强烈的动机”的论点就不成立了,因为一个人想要改变自己命运的愿望可能非常强烈。

Finally, it is also necessary to address the underlying assumption in this debate that courses which interest students are different from those conducive to finding jobs. 最后,还有必要解决争论中的潜在假设:让学生感兴趣的课程和有助于他们找到工作的课程是不同。
This is problematic and does not always hold true. 这个假设可能是有问题的,并不总是成立。
Even for those classes that seem to have few practical connections to the real world, they can still teach students vital skills needed to secure decent jobs and succeed in their careers. 即使是那些看起来和现实世界没有多少联系的课程,他们仍然可能教给学生得到体面工作和在职业生涯中成功的重要技能。
For example, advanced theoretical physics involving abstruse ideas and mathematics may seem useless in the job market at first glance, but these courses teach students how to think critically, simplify complex systems in a model and acquire solid mathematical skills essential in the financial world. 例如,乍一看涉及深奥思想和数学知识这些高级理论的物理学在就业市场中毫无作用,但这些课程教导学生如何批判性思考,在模型中简化复杂问题,并让他们获得在金融界十分必要的坚实的数学技能。
Firms on Wall Street are actively seeking job candidates with solid background in math, physics and computer science, which is a compelling piece evidence that courses of interest can also lead to jobs. 华尔街的公司正在寻找那些具备数学、物理和计算机科学背景的求职者,这是一个很有力的证据证明凭兴趣选择的课程也能赢得好工作。

In conclusion, it is beneficial for students to pursue subjects that interest them but students should take their financial situation into consideration when selecting courses.
Job availability and students' interest do not constitute an irreconcilable dichotomy; classes can be both interesting and beneficial to the job market.

Studying in a Foreign Country - 100

Colleges and universities should require their students to spend at least one semester studying in a foreign country.

Write a response in which you discuss your views on the policy and explain your reasoning for the position you take.
In developing and supporting your position, you should consider the possible consequences of implementing the policy and
explain how these consequences shape your position.

Spending at least one semester studying in a foreign country is an appealing and realistic proposal for driven university students.
Whether or not this should be a mandatory high-education requirement, however, greatly depends on how they regard the opportunity.
Will they focus exclusively on their studies or will they assume the role of ambassadors for their countries?

If we want students to expand their academic and non-academic experiences, we should encourage them to study in a foreign country for at least one semester, but should not make it a compulsory requirement. 如果希望丰富学生们的学术以及非学术经验,我们应该鼓励他们在国外学习至少一个学期;但我认为,不应该把这条建议当做一个强制要求。
Not all students are well-suited to study abroad. 因为并不是所有学生都能很好地适应海外留学。
Assimilating into a foreign culture entails a comprehensive understanding of that culture. 融入一国文化需要对这种文化具备全面的理解。
This is unlikely if the student lacks language proficiency, 如果学生缺乏熟练的外语,那这点便不大可能实现。
However, acquiring sufficient language proficiency so as to have little difficulty communicating both academically and in their daily lives, is incredibly time-consuming. 然而,在学习和日常生活两方面,掌握熟练外语以实现零障碍交流是极为耗时的。
THis makes overseas study a desirable choice exclusively for those already proficient in the target language. 这就使得海外留学只针对那些熟练掌握外语的学生来说,才是一个可取的选项。
For example, while an english major student might benefit tremendously from immersion in an English-speaking country, requiring a Japanese Literature major student, who is Japanese, to pursue his/her study in an English-speaking country is unreasonable when he/she would receive better instruction in his/her own country. 比如,尽管能够浸染在一个英语国家对于英语专业的学生来说无疑是一个莫大的恩惠,但如果要求一个主修日语文学的专业的日本学生,前往英语国家继续学业则是不合理的,因为他/她明明可以在自己国家接受更好的教育。
It may even be disastrous to compel an American freshman study in a Chines university, if his/her rudimentary Chinese language skills would preclude him/her from a wholehearted immersion in Chinese culture and consequently inflame his/her eager of returning to his/her home country. 如果强迫一个美国大学新生在一所中国大学里求学,其结果也可能是灾难性的,因为中文水平低将阻碍他/她吸收中国文化,并可能进一步刺激他/她想要回国的欲望。

On the other hand, if we are discussing whether to require every student to become an exchange students, the issue if far more complex and therefore necessitates a more thorough examination. 另一方面,如果我们在讨论“是否要让每一个学生都成为交换生”,那么这个问题将变得极为复杂,因此需要更为详细的检视。
Firstly, it is expensive to live and study in a foreign country. 首先,在国外学习,生活开销不菲。
Even if the government assumed the expense, it would still be impossible to provide every student with such an opportunity. 即便政府承担费用,但为每一个学生提供这样的机会还是显得不实际。
More importantly, exchange student programs are designed in the hope that students from two counties could contribute to the multicultural communication. 更为重要的是,交换生项目存在的初衷是:希望两国学生能够为多边文化交流的建立做贡献。
Such a contribution depends on how ell the students embody their country's most valuable characteristics and whether they are able to express and convey those in a friendly and explicit way. 这样一种贡献取决于学生能在多大程度上展现他们国家最为宝贵的特质,以及他们能否以一种友好且明确的方式将其表达和传递。
Moreover, exchange students should possess an intense passion for various cultures and an appreciation for multiculturalism. 另外,交换生应该对各类文化抱有极高的热情并且乐于欣赏多元主义。
Therefore, colleges and universities should adopt a selection method that would provide only elite students who personify these characteristics with the opportunity to study abroad. 因此,各所学院和大学应该采取“只向精英学生开放”的甄选模式,因为他们能够通过海外学习的机会完美呈现本国的优秀特质。
As a result, the students selected would represent their nation well and also gain a wealth of experience in foreign countries. 因此,被选中的学生将很好地代表自己的国家,并且在海外收货丰富的留学经历。
However, if we give this opportunity to students indiscriminately, the goal of multicultural communication will be jeopardized. 然而,如果我们不加区别地向学生提供机会,多元文化交流的目标将因此而受损。

In addition, while communication with different culture is appealing and indispensable for a university student, not only does such communication result from an overseas experience, but it can be also achieved through introduction of foreign teacher into students' home country. 另外,尽管跨国文化交流是具有吸引力且不可或缺的,但对于大学生来说,这样的交流不只能来源于海外留学,也可以通过引进外籍教师来实现。
This alternative policy demonstrates advantages when students cannot afford the expense of overseas study and is thereby presumable desirable in some developing countries. 当学生们无法支付海外留学的费用时,这条替代性政策将显示其优势,并且因此可能在发展中国家受到广泛的欢迎。

TO draw a conclusion, no matter students perceive the opportunity to study abroad, they should always be asked whether or not they want to do so, as well as whether or not they are capable of doing so.
Besides, when it comes to a case where exchange students are selected, we should guarantee that only those who sufficiently embody their countries are provided with opportunities.
Moreover when alternative options emerge, which outshine the proposed one in this issue task in terms of financial factors, we should better adopt the former ones.